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Summary Sheep population in South Kordofan State was estimated to be four million head. Sheep brucellosis was not studied in this state despite its widespread in cattle. The aim of this study was to investigate prevalence of brucellosis in sheep in South Kordofan State. A total of 1229 blood for serum samples and 128 milk samples were collected during January 2009 to December 2010, the former were examined by the Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT), the modified Rose Bengal Plate Test (mRBPT), and the Competitive ELISA (cELISA) and the latter by the Milk Ring Test (MRT). Serum antibody concentrations of the positive samples were measured in international units per ml, besides vaginal swabs, lymph nodes, testicular tissues and orchitis exudate were obtained and cultured together with the milk on Serum Dextrose Agar supplemented with antibiotics (Oxoid, Brucella antibiotic supplement) and Brucella was isolated from an internal inguinal lymph node and testicular tissues of a ram. Both organisms were found to be B. melitensis biovar 1 and this is the first report of this biovar in the Sudan. The results of RBPT, mRBPT and cELISA were compared. The disease was found prevalent in sheep in 21 areas in five localities of the state. The prevalence in the five localities amounted to 13.4% in Kalogi, 7.9% in Kadugli, 3% in Aboujbaiha, 1% in Dilling and 1% in Abbasia. The overall prevalence of the disease was 5.5%. The statistical analysis showed that the prevalence of the disease was significantly different in the aforementioned localities (p < 0.001). Competitive ELISA detected more positive cases than both, the RBPT and the mRBPT. It is recommended that government officials, farmers and veterinarians must be aware of the disease situation in the state. Veterinarians and all stakeholders must cooperate to contain the disease by different means. Mass vaccination of sheep and goats with B. melitensis vaccine strain Rev.1 vaccine is recommended for the disease control.

 
 
   
 
 

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